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PHP manual


htmlspecialchars

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

htmlspecialcharsConvert special characters to HTML entities

Description

string htmlspecialchars ( string $string [, int $flags = ENT_COMPAT | ENT_HTML401 [, string $charset [, bool $double_encode = true ]]] )

Certain characters have special significance in HTML, and should be represented by HTML entities if they are to preserve their meanings. This function returns a string with some of these conversions made; the translations made are those most useful for everyday web programming. If you require all HTML character entities to be translated, use htmlentities() instead.

This function is useful in preventing user-supplied text from containing HTML markup, such as in a message board or guest book application.

The translations performed are:

  • '&' (ampersand) becomes '&'
  • '"' (double quote) becomes '"' when ENT_NOQUOTES is not set.
  • "'" (single quote) becomes ''' only when ENT_QUOTES is set.
  • '<' (less than) becomes '&lt;'
  • '>' (greater than) becomes '&gt;'

Parameters

string

The string being converted.

flags

A bitmask of one or more of the following flags, which specify how to handle quotes, invalid code unit sequences and the used document type. The default is ENT_COMPAT | ENT_HTML401.

Available flags constants
Constant Name Description
ENT_COMPAT Will convert double-quotes and leave single-quotes alone.
ENT_QUOTES Will convert both double and single quotes.
ENT_NOQUOTES Will leave both double and single quotes unconverted.
ENT_IGNORE Silently discard invalid code unit sequences instead of returning an empty string. This is provided for backwards compatibility; avoid using it as it may have security implications.
ENT_SUBSTITUTE Replace invalid code unit sequences with a Unicode Replacement Character U+FFFD (UTF-8) or &#FFFD; (otherwise) instead of returning an empty string.
ENT_DISALLOWED Replace code unit sequences, which are invalid in the specified document type, with a Unicode Replacement Character U+FFFD (UTF-8) or &#FFFD; (otherwise).
ENT_HTML401 Handle code as HTML 4.01.
ENT_XML1 Handle code as XML 1.
ENT_XHTML Handle code as XHTML.
ENT_HTML5 Handle code as HTML 5.

charset

Defines character set used in conversion. The default character set is ISO-8859-1.

For the purposes of this function, the charsets ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-15, UTF-8, cp866, cp1251, cp1252, and KOI8-R are effectively equivalent, provided the string itself is valid for the character set, as the characters affected by htmlspecialchars() occupy the same positions in all of these charsets.

Following character sets are supported in PHP 4.3.0 and later.

Supported charsets
Charset Aliases Description
ISO-8859-1 ISO8859-1 Western European, Latin-1
ISO-8859-15 ISO8859-15 Western European, Latin-9. Adds the Euro sign, French and Finnish letters missing in Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1).
UTF-8   ASCII compatible multi-byte 8-bit Unicode.
cp866 ibm866, 866 DOS-specific Cyrillic charset. This charset is supported in 4.3.2.
cp1251 Windows-1251, win-1251, 1251 Windows-specific Cyrillic charset. This charset is supported in 4.3.2.
cp1252 Windows-1252, 1252 Windows specific charset for Western European.
KOI8-R koi8-ru, koi8r Russian. This charset is supported in 4.3.2.
BIG5 950 Traditional Chinese, mainly used in Taiwan.
GB2312 936 Simplified Chinese, national standard character set.
BIG5-HKSCS   Big5 with Hong Kong extensions, Traditional Chinese.
Shift_JIS SJIS, 932 Japanese
EUC-JP EUCJP Japanese
''   An empty string activates detection from script encoding (Zend multibyte), default_charset and current locale (see nl_langinfo() and setlocale()), in this order. Not recommended.

Note: Any other character sets are not recognized. The default encoding will be used instead and a warning will be emitted.

double_encode

When double_encode is turned off PHP will not encode existing html entities, the default is to convert everything.

Return Values

The converted string.

If the input string contains an invalid code unit sequence within the given charset and the ENT_IGNORE flag is not set, then htmlspecialchars() will return an empty string.

Changelog

Version Description
5.4.0 The constants ENT_SUBSTITUTE, ENT_DISALLOWED, ENT_HTML401, ENT_XML1, ENT_XHTML and ENT_HTML5 were added.
5.3.0 The constant ENT_IGNORE was added.
5.2.3 The double_encode parameter was added.
4.1.0 The charset parameter was added.

Examples

Example #1 htmlspecialchars() example

<?php
$new 
htmlspecialchars("<a href='test'>Test</a>"ENT_QUOTES);
echo 
$new// &lt;a href=&#039;test&#039;&gt;Test&lt;/a&gt;
?>

Notes

Note:

Note that this function does not translate anything beyond what is listed above. For full entity translation, see htmlentities().

See Also